User guide

This page gives a tour of reader’s features, and a few examples of how to use them.


Before starting, make sure that reader is installed and up-to-date.

The Reader object

The Reader object persists feed and entry state and provides operations on them.

To create a new Reader, call make_reader() with the path to a database file:

>>> from reader import make_reader
>>> reader = make_reader("db.sqlite")

The default (and currently only) storage uses SQLite, so the path behaves like the database argument of sqlite3.connect():

  • If the database does not exist, it will be created automatically.
  • You can pass ":memory:" to use a temporary in-memory database; the data will disappear when the reader is closed.

After you are done with the reader, call close() to release the resources associated with it:

>>> reader.close()

While the same thing will eventually happen when the reader is garbage-collected, it is recommended to call close() explicitly, especially in long-running processes or when you create multiple readers pointing to the same database. You can use contextlib.closing() to do this automatically:

>>> from contextlib import closing
>>> with closing(make_reader('db.sqlite')) as reader:
...     ... # do stuff with reader

File-system access

reader supports http(s):// and local (file:) feeds.

For security reasons, you might want to restrict file-system access to a single directory or prevent it entirely; you can do so by using the feed_root make_reader() argument:

>>> # local feed paths are relative to /feeds
>>> reader = make_reader("db.sqlite", feed_root='/feeds')
>>> # ok, resolves to /feeds/feed.xml
>>> reader.add_feed("feed.xml")
>>> # ok, resolves to /feeds/also/feed.xml
>>> reader.add_feed("file:also/feed.xml")
>>> # error on update, resolves to /feed.xml, which is above /feeds
>>> reader.add_feed("file:../feed.xml")
>>> # all local paths will fail to update
>>> reader = make_reader("db.sqlite", feed_root=None)

Note that it is still possible to add local feeds regardless of feed_root; it is updating them that will fail.

Adding feeds

To add a feed, call the add_feed() method with the feed URL:

>>> reader.add_feed("")
>>> reader.add_feed("")

Most of the attributes of a new feed are empty (to populate them, the feed must be updated):

>>> feed = reader.get_feed("")
>>> print(feed)
Feed(url='', updated=None, title=None, ...)

Deleting feeds

To delete a feed and all the data associated with it, use remove_feed():

>>> reader.remove_feed("")

Updating feeds

To retrieve the latest version of a feed, along with any new entries, it must be updated. You can update all the feeds by using the update_feeds() method:

>>> reader.update_feeds()
>>> reader.get_feed(feed)
Feed(url='', updated=datetime.datetime(2020, 2, 28, 9, 34, 2), title='Hello Internet', ...)

To retrive feeds in parallel, use the workers flag:

>>> reader.update_feeds(workers=10)

You can also update a specific feed using update_feed():

>>> reader.update_feed("")

If supported by the server, reader uses the ETag and Last-Modified headers to only retrieve feeds if they changed (details). Even so, you should not update feeds too often, to avoid wasting the feed publisher’s resources, and potentially getting banned; every 30 minutes seems reasonable.

To support updating newly-added feeds off the regular update schedule, you can use the new_only flag; you can call this more often (e.g. every minute):

>>> reader.update_feeds(new_only=True)

If you need the status of each feed as it gets updated (for instance, to update a progress bar), you can use update_feeds_iter() instead, and get a (url, updated feed or none or exception) pair for each feed:

>>> for url, value in reader.update_feeds_iter():
...     if value is None:
...         print(url, "not modified")
...     elif isinstance(value, Exception):
...         print(url, "error:", value)
...     else:
...         print(url,, "new,", value.updated, "updated")
... 100 new, 0 updated not modified

Disabling feed updates

Sometimes, it is useful to skip a feed when using update_feeds(); for example, the feed does not exist anymore, and you want to stop requesting it unnecessarily during regular updates, but still want to keep its entries (so you cannot remove it).

disable_feed_updates() allows you to do exactly that:

>>> reader.disable_feed_updates(feed)

You can check if updates are enabled for a feed by looking at its updates_enabled attribute:

>>> reader.get_feed(feed).updates_enabled

Getting feeds

As seen in the previous sections, get_feed() returns a Feed object with more information about a feed:

>>> from prettyprinter import pprint, install_extras;
>>> install_extras(include=['dataclasses'])
>>> feed = reader.get_feed(feed)
>>> pprint(feed)
    title='Hello Internet',
    author='CGP Grey',
    added=datetime.datetime(2020, 10, 12),
    last_updated=datetime.datetime(2020, 10, 12)

To get all the feeds, use the get_feeds() method:

>>> for feed in reader.get_feeds():
...     print(
...         feed.title or feed.url,
...         f"by { or 'unknown author'},",
...         f"updated on {feed.updated or 'never'}",
...     )
Cortex by Relay FM, updated on 2020-09-14 12:15:00
Hello Internet by CGP Grey, updated on 2020-02-28 09:34:02

get_feeds() also allows filtering feeds by their tags, if the last update succeeded, or if updates are enabled, and changing the feed sort order.

Changing feed URLs

Sometimes, feeds move from one URL to another.

This can be handled naively by removing the old feed and adding the new URL; however, all the data associated with the old feed would get lost, including any old entries (some feeds only have the last X entries).

To change the URL of a feed in-place, use change_feed_url():

>>> reader.change_feed_url(
...     "",
...     ""
... )

Sometimes, the id of the entries changes as well; you can handle duplicate entries by using a plugin like feed_entry_dedupe.

Getting entries

You can get all the entries, most-recent first, by using get_entries(), which generates Entry objects:

>>> for entry, _ in zip(reader.get_entries(), range(10)):
...     print(entry.feed.title, '-', entry.title)
Cortex - 106: Clear and Boring
Hello Internet - H.I. #136: Dog Bingo

get_entries() allows filtering entries by their feed, flags, feed tags, or enclosures, and changing the entry sort order. Here is an example of getting entries for a single feed:

>>> feed.title
'Hello Internet'
>>> entries = list(reader.get_entries(feed=feed))
>>> for entry in entries[:2]:
...     print(entry.feed.title, '-', entry.title)
Hello Internet - H.I. #136: Dog Bingo
Hello Internet - H.I. #135: Place Your Bets

Entry flags

Entries can be marked as read or as important.

These flags can be used for filtering:

>>> reader.mark_as_read(entries[0])
>>> entries = list(reader.get_entries(feed=feed, read=False))
>>> for entry in entries[:2]:
...     print(entry.feed.title, '-', entry.title)
Hello Internet - H.I. #135: Place Your Bets
Hello Internet - # H.I. 134: Boxing Day

Feed metadata

Feeds can have metadata, key-value pairs where the values are any JSON-serializable data:

>>> reader.get_feed_metadata(feed, 'key', 'default')
>>> reader.set_feed_metadata(feed, 'key', 'value')
>>> reader.get_feed_metadata(feed, 'key', 'default')
>>> reader.set_feed_metadata(feed, 'another', {'one': [2]})
>>> dict(reader.iter_feed_metadata(feed))
{'another': {'one': [2]}, 'key': 'value'}

Common uses for metadata are plugin and UI settings.

Feed tags

Feeds can also have tags:

>>> reader.add_feed_tag(feed, 'one')
>>> reader.add_feed_tag(feed, 'two')
>>> set(reader.get_feed_tags(feed))
{'one', 'two'}

Tags can be used for filtering feeds and entries (see the get_feeds() documentation for more complex examples):

>>> # feeds that have the tag "one"
>>> [f.title for f in reader.get_feeds(tags=['one'])]
['Hello Internet']
>>> # entries of feeds that have no tags
>>> [
...     (e.feed.title, e.title)
...     for e in reader.get_entries(feed_tags=[False])
... ][:2]
[('Cortex', '106: Clear and Boring'), ('Cortex', '105: Atomic Notes')]

Counting things

You can get aggregated feed and entry counts by using one of the get_feed_counts(), get_entry_counts(), or search_entry_counts() methods:

>>> reader.get_feed_counts()
FeedCounts(total=134, broken=3, updates_enabled=132)
>>> reader.get_entry_counts()
EntryCounts(total=11843, read=9762, important=45, has_enclosures=4273)
>>> reader.search_entry_counts('hello internet')
EntrySearchCounts(total=207, read=196, important=0, has_enclosures=172)

The _counts methods support the same filtering arguments as their non-_counts counterparts. The following example shows how to get counts only for feeds/entries with a specific tag:

>>> for tag in chain(reader.get_feed_tags(), [False]):
...     feeds = reader.get_feed_counts(tags=[tag])
...     entries = reader.get_entry_counts(feed_tags=[tag])
...     print(f"{tag or '<no tag>'}: {} feeds, {} entries ")
podcast: 29 feeds, 4277 entries
python: 29 feeds, 1281 entries
self: 2 feeds, 67 entries
tech: 79 feeds, 5527 entries
webcomic: 6 feeds, 1609 entries
<no tag>: 22 feeds, 1118 entries


reader supports plugins as a way to extend its default behavior.

To use a built-in plugin, pass the plugin name to make_reader():

>>> reader = make_reader("db.sqlite", plugins=[
...     "reader.enclosure_dedupe",
...     "reader.entry_dedupe",
... ])

You can find the full list of built-in plugins here. By default, only reader.ua_fallback is enabled.

Custom plugins

In addition to built-in plugins, reader also supports custom plugins.

A custom plugin is any callable that takes a Reader instance and potentially modifies it in some (useful) way. To use custom plugins, pass them to make_reader():

>>> def function_plugin(reader):
...     print(f"got {reader}")
>>> class ClassPlugin:
...     def __init__(self, **options):
...         self.options = options
...     def __call__(self, reader):
...         print(f"got options {self.options} and {reader}")
>>> reader = make_reader("db.sqlite", plugins=[
...     function_plugin,
...     ClassPlugin(option=1),
... ])
got <reader.core.Reader object at 0x7f8897824a00>
got options {'option': 1} and <reader.core.Reader object at 0x7f8897824a00>

For a real-world example, see the implementation of the enclosure_dedupe built-in plugin. Using it as a custom plugin looks like this:

>>> from reader.plugins import enclosure_dedupe
>>> reader = make_reader("db.sqlite", plugins=[enclosure_dedupe.init_reader])

Feed and entry arguments

As you may have noticed in the examples above, feed URLs and Feed objects can be used interchangeably as method arguments. This is by design. Likewise, wherever an entry argument is expected, you can either pass a (feed URL, entry id) tuple or an Entry (or EntrySearchResult) object.

You can get this unique identifier in a uniform way by using the object_id property. This is useful when you need to refer to a reader object in a generic way from outside Python (e.g. to make a link to the next page of feeds/entries in a web application).

Streaming methods

All methods that return iterators (get_feeds(), get_entries() etc.) generate the results lazily.

Some examples of how this is useful:

  • Consuming the first 100 entries should take roughly the same amount of time, whether you have 1000 or 100000 entries.
  • Likewise, if you don’t keep the entries around (e.g. append them to a list), memory usage should remain relatively constant regardless of the total number of entries returned.

Advanced feedparser features

reader uses feedparser (“Universal Feed Parser”) to parse feeds. It comes with a number of advanced features, most of which reader uses transparently.

Two of these features are worth mentioning separately, since they change the content of the feed, and, although always enabled at the moment, they may become optional in the future; note that disabling them is not currently possible.



Most feeds embed HTML markup within feed elements. Some feeds even embed other types of markup, such as SVG or MathML. Since many feed aggregators use a web browser (or browser component) to display content, Universal Feed Parser sanitizes embedded markup to remove things that could pose security risks.

You can find more details about which markup and elements are sanitized in the feedparser documentation.

The following corresponding reader attributes are sanitized:

Errors and exceptions

All exceptions that Reader explicitly raises inherit from ReaderError.

If there’s an issue retrieving or parsing the feed, update_feed() will raise a ParseError with the original exception (if any) as cause. update_feeds() will just log the exception and move on. In both cases, information about the cause will be stored on the feed in last_exception.

Any unexpected exception raised by the underlying storage implementation will be reraised as a StorageError, with the original exception as cause.

Search methods will raise a SearchError. Any unexpected exception raised by the underlying search implementation will be also be reraised as a SearchError, with the original exception as cause.

When trying to create a feed, entry, metadata that already exists, or to operate on one that does not exist, a corresponding *ExistsError or *NotFoundError will be raised.

All functions and methods may raise ValueError or TypeError implicitly or explicitly if passed invalid arguments.